By Archana Pandey from Jamnalal Bajaj School of Legal Studies, Banasthali Vidyapith
The 21st century is already the worst era ever, so many crises have occurred simultaneously. The whole world is fighting the outbreak of coronavirus. Till now no vaccine has been invented to cure and regulate the widespread of covid-19. The only thing we all can do is maintain social distance and enhance our nervous system by taking all precautions and a healthy diet. Humans are already under high mental pressure under all of these circumstances. The new challenge before the citizens of India is the heavy rainfall which leads to the situation of flood. In India itself there are so many states which are fighting with flood situations like Bihar ,Gujarat ,Assam. Each and every river is now at its peak. All dams are open due to heavy rainfall, there is an overflow of water to populated areas.
River system in Bihar
Bihar has a monsoon climate with high temperature and medium to high rainfall, three fourth part of the Bihar region comprises of the Ganga plains and the Himalayan range. Around one sixth part of the total flood prone area has been covered by Bihar. The Ganga River which is the main drainage system for the flow of water flows from west to east areas. Due to the Ganga River the soil fertility of Bihar is very good and valued for crops fertilization. Overall it can be said that Bihar is covered with water bodies.
History of flooding in Bihar
Flood is that situation which affects each and every portion of the state growth and development. The re-occurrence of floods will definitely disturb the ecology of the state. The provinces in Northern Bihar have had the highest number of floods in the past 30 to 35 years. The major role is played by the Kosi River in causing the floods. An embankment has also been formed to reduce the problem of flood of about 3629 km out of which 3179 km of embankments lies in North Bihar region and the remaining 450 km of embankments lies in South Bihar. But the floods are so high that it breaks the embankments and the water enters into the populated areas. The road over the Gandak River which links Gopalganj with Bettiah has been flooded and washed away. Due to the overflow of rivers, the flood situation worsens in the regions of Bihar. It leads to problems for a population of about 800000 people in over 10 districts of north eastern Bihar that also includes 64 blocks and 426 Panchayats affected by the flood. Many people become homeless as their homes are flooded by the water and they are unable to fulfill their needs.
Effects of flood
Bihar is the poorest state of India, according to annual data collection about 54.5% of its population lies below the poverty line and in the case of rural areas the statistics goes to 55.7%. The per capita income of the people of Bihar is also low which leads to slow economic growth of the state. It is clearly seen that the recurrent occurrence of floods and natural disasters affects the growth and development of the state. It disturbs the system of Bihar in two ways.
The first impact of flood revolves around the agricultural sector of Bihar. Around 80% of the natives of Bihar are members of the agricultural sector which means there is an over utilization of resources and so many people are working on a particular field. Whenever the flood comes it eradicates the agricultural lands. Though the fertility of the soil in Bihar is well and good to grow crops but when the floods arrive it takes silts with itself which make the soil unfertilized, because of these conditions they have to find a different occupation and a place to set up as that particular area is of no use now. The second impact is on the cost of embankments. It includes infrastructure, buildings, maintaining and repairing. It is very difficult to rebuild, repair and maintain the infrastructure after the dissolution of everything because of floods. Every time when the flood comes that particular infrastructure has been eradicated or dissolved because of this and hence the money and the budget of the state are invested in that rebuilding.
The floods affect the living standards and the progress in the state, totally disturb the ecological balance and economic balance of the state. It affects lifestyle as so many people have lost their houses and families which also results in mental and depression. After The dissolution of everything a person has to start from the beginning so it is difficult for them to rebuild or regain that particular peak again after the dissolution which affects the living standard of the individuals.
It also affects the health system and policies of the government. The life expectancy of people is also reduced because the immune system of them became weak due to current natural disasters and they are unable to cope with the situations.
Approach and methodology
When any particular situation arises in front of the government or any state then the effects of that particular situation depends on how the particular government or state tackles that issue, what are the policies, their helping system and many other recruitment plans.
National disaster response force: It works at a national level as it protects the people who are there in any natural calamities to save their life. Through the air passage for Navy passage they try to rescue the people who stuck down in the natural calamities.
- Flood Management Information System cell: This has been framed with agreement to go to the World Bank so that the first can be managed and tried to prevent natural calamities. It works to provide assistance regarding natural calamities and bearing the people regarding the same. It also helps to improve the decisions and programs taken after the flood.
- Bihar State Disaster Management Authority & Disaster Management Department: It is a state level department which depends upon the strategies of national disaster management authority at National level. It basically works in the field of communication with the community and media platforms. It tries to overcome the situation that has been created after the natural calamities. It provides security and rehabilitation programs to the people who have lost their homes, families and means of living.
It is for sure that any natural calamity brings destruction and problems with it. The only way to prevent this is by taking precautions. If any natural calamity is coming then the new way of thinking and expressing is required. One has to think about the solution of that problem. Each and every citizen has to pay their vital role in regulating and controlling the situation in their country. They have to help the needy people so that they can come on the track.