By Somya Goyal
Israel is the only Jews country in the world which didn’t officially exist till 1948. At the current situation there is lot of conflicts going with Palestine to know the correct reason there is a need to turn the pages of the history. The issue of Israel and Palestine can be distributed into 4 time periods.
- Ottoman empire
- Second World War
- When actual Israel and Palestine dispute arises
- Current situation
- Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire was formed by capturing many nations in it. Countries like Egypt, Turkey, Jordon, Syria etc. comes under ottoman empire. During that period of time the Jews were only 3% of total population of the empire. Earlier before the advent of Islam and Christianity the Jews were in majority in Ottoman Empire but the coin takes no time in flip and same happen with Jews who have reduced from 3000 to only 3% in the empire. Jews start migrating from Ottoman Empire to various parts of the world and as result the influence of Islam and Christians start increasing.
As the time passes the Ottoman Empire start losing its power because of lack of leadership skills in leader and because of continuous interference of United Nations of America who considered Ottoman Empire as land of their forefathers.
- First World War
During the World War 1 the main aim of Britishers was to increase their army and to fulfill that objective they have played a very clever trick and has used Israel and Palestine region as their puppets which can help them to win the war.The main contender of this wasJews, Arabs, French and Russians.
- Jews: the BritishEmpire made Jewsto sign the Balfour declaration 1917 promising them to return the old Israel region to Jews and Jews will be permitted to live there. The establishment in Palestine of a national home for Jewish people was promised.
- France and Russia: they negotiate SYKES- PICOT agreement in which it was decided that the region of Palestine will go to United kingdoms and the rest of the region comprising Jordon and Syria will be given to France and the region of turkey will be given to Russia. The agreement was made.
- Arabs: the British laid a proposal to Arab that the Palestine region will be given to Arabs and the population of Arabs will be permitted to live there without any interference to which the Arabs agreed.
- After World War 1
As promised with France the area of Syria was given to them. Turkey went to Russia.
The problem arise with other 3 regions the British start calling todays area of Israel and Palestine as Mandate of Palestine in which britishers permitted the 3 religions Jews, Arabs and Christians to live together. All the facilities and land were provided to the said three religions differently.
Divide and rule policies were practices by the britishers. There was already the contract between Jews and Britishers and as per that contract the Jews from all over the world start coming and living in mandate of Palestine with heavy population of their. As a result of which their population increases again from 3 to 30 % and they start compromising a majority in that area. Soon the region becomes migrating as when Jews start increasing their population in the region the people who are living from 500 years their start migrating to different parts of the region and world. Buying of lands and evicting of local Palestinian Arabs.
- 1936- Arab revolt against British
By seeing this arrangement Arab inhabitants living their declared a war in 1936 against Britishers on the ground that Britishers are deliberately increasing the population of Jews in the area. As a response to this, the Britishers start sending army and troops to Jews and also trainings were given to make militant Jews with an aim to suppress the revolt. But unfortunately this trick of Britishers bears no fruits. By seeing the seriousness of the issue britishers had taken steps to control the population of Jewsimmigration in the region for example they have set certain limits to the number of Jews immigrants which can come in one year.
This arrangement fills anger in Jews who directly accuses Britishers for breach of contract and starts creating problem for the Britishers.
- World War II- Holocaust in Europe
When there was massive genocide in Germany by Nazi party the Jewish people living in Germany shifts their way to Israel as it was the only safe place for them at that period of time. This activity leads to rise in population of Jews in mandate of Palestine and as a result Islam and Christians come in minority there and Jews occupies the place of majority.
In 1945 the United Nations was formed. The question arises in 1947 in front of United Nations to make some arrangement of Arabs, Christians and Jews. Upon British request, the United Nations formed the United Nations special committee on Palestine (UNSCOP). The UN general assembly passed the above plan (GA Resolution 181) on November 27, 1947. The plan was accepted by the Jews but not by Arabs and never came to fruition.
In 1948 the mandate of Palestine was distributed in two parts namely Israel and Palestine and international control over Jerusalem. But the real problem arises from here as the region was divided into two parts which was not equal and also the distribution was very complicated. The region in which Jews were in majority was given to Israel and areas in which Arabs were in majority were given to Palestine. The situation can be viewed in similarance when India was stick between distribution of east and West Pakistan. This complexity of division creates many hindrances in the administration as the regions were mixed in each other.
- ARAB- ISRAEL WAR 1948-1949
Soon after this distribution the nearby Islamic stateslike Syria, Egypt, Iraq and trans Jordon all collectively attacked on newly formed state with the motive of capturing Israel and make whole Israel into Arab state. But in this they were miserably failed and Israel not only wins the war but also get many important parts of Palestine which were not provided to it by the UN. There were almost 7,00,000 refugees.
The main events that took place were that Egypt has taken control over Gaza Strip and Jordon has taken control over West Bank. So in a nutshell the war benefitted only Israel, Egypt and Jordon and the area of Palestine decreased.
- SIX DAY WAR, 1967
On learning from this experience Israel learnt that its relation with its neighboring countries are not good and decides to declare war on them first. As a result Israel leads a 6 day war in which it acquires west bank from Jordon and Gaza strip from Egypt, captures Golan Heights and triples itsarea. There was crushing defeat of Arab.
- 1973 YOM KIPPUR WAR AND CAMP DAVID ACCORDS, 1978
In 1973,Egypt again declared war on Israel. Israel was very weak initially during the war but later on repulses the war very strongly .In this war both the nations were not very strong and a result of this war a mid way was created in Camp David Accord in which Sinai Peninsula of Egypt which was acquired by the Israel in 1968 war was returned to Egypt and in return Egyptrecognizes Israel. Egypt was the first Arab country to recognize Israel.
Seeing all the conditions of war the nearby states and Arabs decided not to hold any war and to live in their places peacefully.
- PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANISATION
Admist of all this Palestine liberal organization (P.L.O.) which was formed in 1964 whose work was to bring political association and to form Palestine by any method either by politics or by terrorism.
- First INTIFIDA 1987-93
In its support only Palestine were motivated to war and war was held 1993. This period witnessed the uprising of PLO and HAMAS. There wer protests and boycott on large scale. 100 Jews and thousands of Palestinians were deal and lakhs of people were injured.
- OSLO ACCORDS, 1993
Agreement was made between Israel and PLO to stop war for initial 5 years volunteered by Bill Clinton between both governments. After this secret negotiation in OSLO the agreement between the two was signed in Washington DC. As a result of the agreement the state of Israel was given recognition by the PLO and Palestine places its authority for the self-governance of West bank and Gaza strip.
- CAMP DAVID II -2000
In 2000 talks have been failed because there was no permanent solution for this problem and as a result peace process starts breaking down.
- Second INTIFIDA (2000-2005)
As per the agreement it was decided to find a solution after 5 years but after the lapse of 5 year no solution was found and again war happened between Israel and Palestine in which Palestine has to incur heavy losses because of means adopted by Israel like bombing buses, setting fire and rocket launching. This intifada was more violent than the first one and thousands of Jews and thirty two hundred Palestine’s were killed.
- AFTER INTIFIDA- 2005
There was rightward shift in thinking policies. The focus of both the states was on ‘managing’ the conflict and not on ‘solving’ it. Both the countries after 2005 realizing that they cannot take control over each other territory decided to drop the idea of war and shift their focus to development. Israel deployed its army from West bank and Gaza strip.
In 2006 the government of HAMAS was formed at Gaza strip. Hamas organization was very nationalist and comprises of orthodox terrorists. The terrorists of HAMAS release rockets from HAMAS to the civilians of Israel. As a result of which there was Blockading of Gaza, setting of check post, naval blockades by Israel. This has created to worsening of position of Gaza because of this blockade help by UN and from other international organizations can’t be reached to it and it creates rise in unemployment, electricity and water crisis. In 2008, 2012 and 2014 three main wars were there in Gaza by Israel which causes thousands of death of civilians by HAMAS and IDF which was against the principles of Geneva Conventionthis leads to tension between Israel and Palestine because now Israel has to deal with both PLO and Hamas. There was no talks and solution between Israel, PLO and Hamas because Hamas dint recognizes Israel it believes in disappearance of Israel.
- MAJOR ISSUES
- Status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is holy site of Abrahamic religion i.e., it is the first most important holy site of Jews, Islam considered it as its third most important holy site after Mecca and Medina, and it is important for Christians because fructification of Jesus was held at this place only. The east part of the Jerusalem was controlled by Muslims and western byJewish population. Jerusalem is divided in two parts, one part being in control of Israel and other part being in control of Israel and Palestine. Israel has authority over the city and controls it and has restricted access to holy sites ( temple mount/ Al Aqsa mosque, Solomon temple, western wall) in it Israel has declared Jerusalem its capital but rest of the world considers Tel Aviv as its capital and every country’s embassy is in Tel Aviv only. The reason of not recognizing as capital because as per UN Resolution Jerusalem was recognized as a body which will be governed by an international organization.
- Palestinian refugees
After 1948 and 1967 wars there were lakhs of refugees from Palestinian moved to Syria, Jordon, Egypt and many other Arab countries where they’restill living in camps. There are total 5 million refugees. The issue lies that the whole world believes that if there is any agreement than these people should return to Palestinian to which Israel refuses because if these 5 million people reaches Israel then Jews will face problem because there total population is only 8 lakhs.
- Israel’s has security concerns over terrorist activities by HAMAS as they directly attack their civilians
- Palestinian didn’t like the military occupations of West Bank and blockading of Gaza because of this Gaza become poorest country in the world and whose Human Development Index is decreasing day by day.
- In 1950 Israel start shifting of people to West bank and start giving incentives to Jews on settling in West bank which are illegal because by UN West bank is given to Palestine and Israel is continuously increasing its settlement in Palestine. All experts are criticizing Israel’s idea to form a nation by continuously increasing their improvements in Palestine Ares.
- Water crisis are faced by people of Israel because Israel is compromised by desert and it is continuing use water of Palestine people
- West bank wall
Israel is making wall on west bank to stop movement by Palestine people to west bank so that Palestine people are completely blocked to enter in west wall by setting up of many check posts.
- Current status
The problem in current time arises when the Donald trump, the president of USA gives its recognition to Israel to make half Jerusalem as its capital and create conflicts in whole world. The whole world rejects this recognition because trump declares this on own without any consultation and discussion. Resolution was passed in UN general assembly that no recognition is given to Jerusalem as capital of Israel.
According to experts Israel has to give two state solutions – Israel and Palestine. Each party as to understand the viewpoint of each other as no one of them is wrong and has to understand the legitimacy of each other’s narrative. Common grounds can be reached only by talks.
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